17 Most Important Terms that are used in Mendelian Experiments

2. Gamete:

Haploid sex cell produced from a diploid parent (as in pea plant).

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3. Genotype:

Genetic character of the individual which it obtains from the parents

4. Phenotype:

The external appearance of the individual which is a reaction of the genotype and environment

5. Homozygous:

An individual in which the two factors for every character are identical i.e. the two homologous chromosomes have the same alleles. Homozygous individual produces only one type of a gamete for every character i.e. all the gametes carry identical factors.

6. Heterozygous:

An individual in which the two factors responsible for a character are dissimilar heterozygote produces at least two different types of gametes.

The number of types of gametes produced in a heterozygote depends on the number of characters for which factors are not identical for e.g. Heterozygote for one character, 2 gametes, for 2 characters 22, for 3 characters 23(8), for n characters etc

7. Pure line:

A character in a plant for which the plant breeds true i.e. even after repeated generations the same characters is repeated.

8. Hybrid:

A plant produced by crossing two pure lines. Hybrid for one character is called monohybrid, for two characters dihybrid, for 3 characters trihybrid, for many characters polyhybird etc.

9. Allele or Allelomorph:

The term used to refer to a member of a gene pair in a diploid organism responsible for a particular trait. These alleles occupy the same locus on the homologous chromosomes.

10. F2 generation:

Progeny produced from a cross between two F1 individuals.

11. Parent generation:

The individuals used for the first cross. It is referred to P1 generation.

12. Dominant:

A character in the parent which appears in the F1 generation suppressing the other allele

13. Recessive:

The character that is suppressed in the F, generation in spite of being present in the genotype

14. Monohybrid crosses:

A cross in which the inheritance pattern of only one character is followed

15. Dihybrid crosses:

A cross in which the inheritance pattern of two characters are followed

16. Reciprocal cross:

In this, the sexes of the crossing parents are reversed with reference to the first cross.

17. Back cross or test cross:

This is performed to find out whether the two factors (dominant and recessive) are present in the F, generation this is done by crossing the F, progeny back with one of the parents (recessive).