3 Important Output Functions of a Political System (According to Almond)

It means the enforcement of the rules made by the rule-making authority in one form or the other. In a modern society, the rules are executed by officials who need a very high degree of administrative capacity. Thus, the role and importance of bureaucracy has been considerably increased.

To Carl Friedrich, bureaucracy is the core of modern government. In the words of Almond, “In the modern era, most legislation is of a very general kind; in order that it may be effectively enforced, administrative officials must work out regulations or regulatory codes elaborating the policy which has been adopted by the political branches of the government.”

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Usually, the extent to which a general policy is carried out is dependent upon the interpretations which bureaucrats give to it. “In the absence of such a central, directing, policy-making agency, the trend towards inertia and decentralisation appears to be inevitable, for in the nature of the case the bureaucratic monster is a technical instrumental monster.”

3. Rule-Adjudication:

Gabriel Almond defines rule-adjudication thus: “The performance of the adjudication function involves the process of making authoritative decisions as to whether or not a rule has been transgressed in a given case.”

According to Easton, the process of adjudication accepts a certain set of settled or presumed rules. It applies these to the conflict situation in the society.

Rule making, Rule Application and Rule Adjudication functions can be described in a traditional way as legislative, executive and judicial functions.