5 Fundamental Differences between “Eukaryotic” and “Prokaryotic” Cells

1. Nucleus:

Nuclear membrane is absent in prokaryotic cells, while eukaryotic cells have a definite bounding membrane. The nuclear material does not form definite chromosomes in prokaryotic cells. The DNA is circular and lies in a tangled mass. In Eukaryotes, the chromenema forms definite number of chromosomes and is associated with proteins.

2. Cytoplasmic organelles:

Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and centrioles are absent in prokaryotes. The enzymatic functions associated with mitochondria are carried out by the in folding of the cell membrane at several points. Eukaryotes have all the organelles mentioned above.

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3. Cell wall:

Chemically the cell wall of prokaryotes is composed of amino sugars and muramic acid. These are absent in the cell wall of eukaryotes (plants).

4. Flagella:

The flagella of eukaryotes have eleven fibres with (2 + 9 arrangement) 2 central and 9 peripheral fibres, while prokaryotic flagella do not exhibit this arrangement.

5. Plastids:

These are absent in prokaryotes. In photosynthetic prokaryotes the chlorphyll is associated with the lamellae, but the lamellae are not enclosed by any membrane. In contrast to this, in all eukaryotes, the chlorophyll pigment is found in definite organelles called chloroplasts.

In addition to the above differences, the streaming movement of cytoplasm may also be added, which is present in eukaryotes, but absent in prokaryotes.