What are the Composite Varieties in Maize? (India)

In the year 1967 ICAR released the following varieties as suitable for cultivation in areas mentioned against their names.

(a) Sona, Vijaya and Jawahar – Punjab, Haryana and West UP.

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(b) Kissan and Jawahar – Bihar, Bengal and East UP.

(c) Kissan and Vikram – Gujarat, Rajasthan,

(d) Ambar and Jawahar – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh.

(e) Ambar – Hilly regions of UP, Himalayan belt.

The varieties mentioned above not only have a higher yield potential than the Ganga varieties but also resistant to pests, diseases and drought. Vijaya variety has an yield of4090 kg per hectare.

Another synthetic variety evolved in 1968 at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana is perhaps the best breed evolved in India. It has a potential yield of4225 kg per hectare.

Gradually, the hybrid varieties are being replaced by the composite varieties as the latter combine a highly complex genotype and are endowed with many desirable traits.

Composite varieties combine traits like disease resistance, higher yield, drought resistance, early maturity etc.

Besides, composite varieties breed true, so the farmer can use the seeds for next sowing. In hybrid varieties however, the seeds are to be produced a fresh from carefully maintained inbred lines. No wonder then composite varieties are being preferred to hybrid varieties.